This guide will equip you with the knowledge you need to gain muscle mass as quickly as possible. You will learn how to intelligently build a weekly training program, which exercises are ideal choices, how to create a diet to get the most out of every minute you spend in the gym. And many many others.
Definitions and common terms
This list of definitions and commonly used terms is used in most training and muscle-building materials.
- Hypertrophy is the increase in muscle cell volume through resistance training. There are two types of muscle hypertrophy: sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar.
- Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy occurs due to an increase in the volume of sarcoplasm (intracellular fluid) of muscle cells. Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy does not lead to an increase in strength indicators.
- Myofibrillar hypertrophy. Myofibrillar hypertrophy occurs due to an increase in the number of myofibrils – contractile proteins (actin and myosin) of muscle cells. Myofibrillar hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in strength indicators and a slight increase in muscle volume. It should be noted that isolated sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar hypertrophy practically do not occur.
- Split workout. Split training, or split training, is a training program designed to work out specific target groups in one training session (and not all muscles at the same time). Split training is usually designed for specific muscle groups, but can also be based on the movements performed (flexion/extension) or for the upper / lower body (split up / down).
- Full body workout. And this approach to training involves the study of all muscle groups in one lesson. Typically, a full-body workout is done three times a week with a minimum of one rest day between workout sessions. Often, a full-body workout is done twice a week.
- Progress. Under progress should be understood gradual and increasing complexity of the training program due to the increase of the working height and weight or volume executed loads using high-intensity training techniques and complicated training methods.
- Repetitions. Repetitions, or reps, are the number of movements performed at one time. Each rep has two phases: concentric (or positive) and eccentric (or negative) movement. The concentric phase refers to the thrust or bench press of the working weight, while in the eccentric phase, the apparatus returns to its original position, from which we will begin the next repetition.
- Set. A set, or set, is a group of reps performed with minimal rest between reps, virtually at a continuous pace.
Body types and bone width factor
There are three main body types : ectomorphic, mesomorphic and endomorphic.
Ectomorph. Ectomorph is a typical skinny guy; he has a slender build with small joints and poorly developed skeletal muscles. As a rule, an ectomorph has long and thin limbs with sinewy muscles. The shoulders are weak and narrow.
Characteristic features of an ectomorph:
- A fragile, “sickly” and bony physique
- Classic “hard gainer”
- Flat chest
- Narrow shoulders
- Muscle mass prevails over fat
- Gaining weight with difficulty
- Accelerated metabolism
Mesomorph. The mesomorph has large bones, developed muscles and a naturally athletic build. The mesomorphic body type is ideal for bodybuilding. Such people easily gain weight and just as easily get rid of those extra pounds. They are naturally strong, which is an excellent foundation for the development of muscles.
Characteristic features of the mesomorph:
- Strong body with prominent muscles
- “Rectangular” shape
- Good physical data
- Builds muscle quickly
- Gains fat mass faster than ectomorph
Endomorph. Representatives of the endomorphic type are mostly overweight people who quickly gain weight due to adipose tissue. As a rule, an endomorph is a short person with thick arms and legs, the muscles are strong, especially the muscles of the front and back of the thigh. Leg exercises such as squats are very easy for endomorphs.
Characteristic features of an endomorph:
- Loose, round build
- Easily gains both muscle and fat
- Generally short and stocky
- “Spherical” figure
- Difficulty getting rid of fat mass
- Slow metabolism
Combined versions of the constitution. Body types are not permanent discrete units. Most of us successfully combine the features of an ectomorph and a mesomorph, or a mesomorph and an ectomorph, and this is found at every step.
Are you a beginner, average or professional?
On DailyFit.ru, all training programs aimed at muscle growth are divided into three categories: for beginners, for practitioners with an average level of training, and for professionals. To determine which training strategy is right for you, be guided by the following considerations:
Beginner. The novice athlete, or beginner, has yet to gain significant muscle mass. Members of this category are just beginning to comprehend the wisdom of a quality workout program and a relevant diet, and if not, then they are wasting the lion’s share of training sessions and will end up with a broken trough.
Average level. A student with an average level of training filled the first bumps, went through the stage of initial muscle building and became at least 5-7 kg heavier due to muscle mass. Intermediate bodybuilders already know how to exercise and eat wisely in order to reap the richest possible harvest.
Professional. The seasoned bodybuilder is resting on his laurels: he has reached the stage where the main goals are achieved, and the annual increase in muscle mass is negligible. Now he needs a creative approach to the training process and/or competent periodization. In a T-shirt, an experienced bodybuilder looks very impressive, and people at first glance understand that this person is really “swinging”.
Diet and Nutrition
Until you learn how to eat right, you will not see massive and relief muscles. Many bodybuilders focus on their workout routines and leave all their energy in the gym, but they have no idea how many calories and grams of protein they are getting on a daily basis. This is the road to nowhere!
To build muscle, you must monitor your diet as closely (if not more) than your exercise program. The principles of “healthy eating” alone are not enough in this situation. Healthy eating is, of course, good and healthy, but a bodybuilder’s diet requires a more specific approach to composing a daily diet:
1. Calories. The energy value of the diet should be constant, and the number of calories should be sufficient for intensive muscle growth. Malnutrition is one of the key barriers to progress.
2. Protein. You must watch your protein intake. Increasing your daily protein intake with strength training can help build muscle. The human body is in a state of constant “protein cycle”: muscle tissue is renewed continuously, old cells are replaced by new ones, and for maximum productivity these processes need a positive nitrogen balance.
3. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates play a key role in muscle growth. Firstly, carbohydrates are a source of energy, and in order to work at the limit of capabilities, our body needs maximum energy reserves. Secondly, after training we really need an insulin release. Insulin is the most anabolic hormone in the human body and promotes the transport of nutrients from the bloodstream to muscle tissue. After a workout, your muscles are desperate for energy and nutrients to regenerate and recover, and this is the only time simple carbohydrates have a positive effect on muscle growth.
4. Healthy fats. A low-fat diet isn’t always healthy. There are a billion reasons the body needs healthy fats. Due to the lack of healthy fats in the diet, sleep is disturbed, the work of the cardiovascular system suffers, recovery is slowed down and the risk of developing overtraining syndrome increases. In short, in order to be in optimal physical shape, you need to get a certain amount of fat – be sure to keep track of this.
How many calories do you need?
How to learn to calculate the daily energy requirement? The first step is to determine your basal metabolic rate (BMR). Basal metabolic rate is an excellent tool for calculating daily energy requirements depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. The tool is based on proven formulas that provide accurate and reliable results. In our calculations, we will use two formulas for determining the daily calorie requirement